MADOPAR 250 MG
(generic name: levodopa)
|J Commun Disord. 2005 May-Jun;38(3):187-96.
Epub 2004 Nov 10.
The effects of levodopa on word intelligibility in Parkinson's
De Letter M, Santens P, Borsel JV.
Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan
185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
Dysarthria is a common manifestation in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's
disease. This study investigated the effects of levodopa on intelligibility
in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ten participants were tested during
on- and off-states using the Yorkston and Beukelman intelligibility test
(1980). Intelligibility as scored by a panel of speech therapists was significantly
improved in the on-condition. No correlation was found, however, between
intelligibility and overall severity of the disease or severity of the motor
problems. EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES:: As a result of this activity the participant
will be able to discuss the effects of levodopa on intelligibility in patients
with Parkinson's disease.
|J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001
Effect of levodopa on orthostatic
and postprandial hypotension in elderly Parkinsonian patients.
Mehagnoul-Schipper DJ, Boerman RH, Hoefnagels WH, Jansen
Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center, Nijmegen,
BACKGROUND: This study describes orthostatic and postprandial hypotension
in elderly Parkinsonian patients and evaluates the effect of levodopa therapy
on orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in these patients. METHODS:
Seventeen elderly patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism based on the U.K. Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank
criteria (age range, 66-84 years) participated in the study. Blood pressure
was continuously monitored during standardized standing and meal tests,
after starting 125-mg b.i.d. doses of levodopa/benserazide (Madopar) or
placebo, in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Seventeen age-
and sex-matched healthy subjects served as controls. RESULTS: Orthostatic
hypotension was infrequently found in Parkinsonian patients (13%) and healthy
subjects (6%; p =.58, between groups), whereas postprandial hypotension
was more frequent in Parkinsonian patients (82%) than in healthy subjects
(41%; p <.05, between groups). Doses of levodopa/benserazide, administered
2 times per day, did not result in significantly larger blood pressure decreases
after standing or eating, or in higher frequencies of orthostatic or postprandial
hypotension in the Parkinsonian group. Postprandial hypotension was related
to disease severity (r = -.56, p <.05). CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial hypotension,
but not orthostatic hypotension, was more common in elderly Parkinsonian
patients than in healthy subjects. Therapy with 125-mg b.i.d. doses of levodopa/benserazide
did not significantly aggravate orthostatic or postprandial hypotension.
|Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova.
[Efficiency of new forms of madopar
in Parkinson's disease].
Vendrova MI, Sadekov
RA, Golubev VL.
The paper presents estimation of the efficiency of some new forms of madopar
(madopar dispergative--Mad-Dis, Mad-HBS) in 26 patients with Parkinson's
disease by methods of motor potential, autonomic tests. A good tolerance
of Mad-HBS was found. Its administration neither causes changes of autonomic
indices nor aggravates symptomatology of cardiovascular disease. A single
dose of Mad-Dis may serve as a predictor for a positive result of DOPA-containing
preparations in a certain group of patients with Parkinson's disease.
Rev Neurol 1997 Dec;25(148):1957-63.
Madopar: more than 20 years.
Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante,
OBJECTIVE: To review the main landmarks which led to the introduction
of levadopa in the the treatment of Parkinson's disease and the impact
of levadopatherapy. DEVELOPMENT: The introduction of levadopa was based
on the results of basic scientific investigations in neurochemistry and
neuropharmacology. In 1959 the possibility of dopamine being a neurotransmissor,
and the role it plays in motor control, had been discovered. In 1960,
Hornykiewiez and Ehringer published a paper on the existence of a marked
deficit of dopamine in the caudate nucleus and putamen of patients with
Parkinson's disease. Almost simultaneously, Birkmayer and Barbeau treated
their patients with levadopa for the first time. However, levadopa was
not introduced into clinical practice until 1967 and 1969 when Cotzias
published papers establishing the principles of levadopatherapy as we
now know it. Introduction of levadopa produced a markedly beneficial effect
on the course and mortality of Parkinson's disease. However, it was soon
seen that progression of the disease was not halted and that undesirable
side effects appeared in patients on long-term treatment. This has led
to the development of strategies to prolong the beneficial effects of
levadopa and minimize its side effects. CONCLUSION: More than 25 years
after the introduction of levadopatherapy, it is still the mainstay of
the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in combination with other medical
and surgical treatment. Definitive treatment, however, will have to wait
until the cause of this illness is fully understood.
Rundsch Med Prax 1995 Oct 24;84(43):1235-8.
Benefits of a new galenic form of levodopa and benserazide
in the treatment of patients with Parkinson disease.
Dessibourg CA, Gachoud JP.
Roche Pharma Schweiz AG, Reinach.
We describe a new, water-soluble formulation of levodopa plus benserazide
(Madopar LIQ) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Two dosage strengths
are available: 100 mg levodopa plus 25 mg benserazide and 50 mg levodopa
plus 12.5 mg benserazide. Pharmacokinetic data show that levodopa absorption
is more rapid than with standard Madopar, resulting in a shorter time
to peak plasma concentration. Other pharmacokinetic values are comparable
to those obtained with the standard formulation. We discuss the clinical
advantages of this new water-soluble formulation, particularly when the
patient requires rapid onset of action for morning or circadian akinesia.
The indications of this formulation in patients with dysphagia and in
other clinical situations, e.g. during the postoperative period and for
levodopa dosage adjustment in ambulatory care, are discussed.
|| Drug information
GENERIC NAME: levodopa
BRAND NAME: Madopar
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Levodopa is a combination of
two drugs, levodopa and carbidopa. Levodopa-carbidopa is used in the treatment
of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is believed to be related
to low levels of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. When levodopa
is taken orally, it crosses through the "blood- brain barrier."
Once it crosses, it is converted to dopamine. The resulting increase in
brain dopamine concentrations is believed to improve nerve conduction
and assist the movement disorders in Parkinson disease. Carbidopa does
not cross the blood-brain barrier. Carbidopa is added to the levodopa
to prevent the breakdown of levodopa before it crosses into the brain.
The addition of carbidopa allows lower doses of levodopa to be used. This
reduces the risk of side effects from levodopa such as nausea and vomiting.
This combination medicine was approved by the FDA in 1988.
PREPARATIONS: Oval tablets (doses stated are for levodopa/carbidopa):
100mg/10mg, 200mg/20mg, 200mg/25mg, 250mg/ 25mg, and a sustained-release
preparation (Sinemet CR) containing 200mg/50mg.
STORAGE: Tablets should be kept at room temperature,
15- 30°C (59-86°F).
PRESCRIBED FOR: Levodopa-carbidopa is indicated for
the management of Parkinson's disease.
DOSING: Levodopa-carbidopa is taken several times per
day. It may be administered with food to reduce the likelihood of nausea.
However, a high-protein diet may reduce its absorption.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: The use of amantadine (Symmetrel),
benztropine (Cogentin), procyclidine (Kemadrin), or trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
with levodopa-carbidopa can enhance the anti- Parkinson's effects of levodopa.
Droperidol, haloperidol (Haldol), loxapine (Loxitane), metoclopramide
(Reglan), phenothiazines such as prochlorperazine (Thorazine); thioxanthenes
as thiothixene (Navane) inhibit dopamine in the brain. These drugs, therefore,
can worsen Parkinson's disease and reverse the beneficial effects of levodopa.
Methyldopa (Aldomet) and reserpine also can interfere with the beneficial
actions of levodopa- carbidopa and can increase the risk of side effects.
Phenytoin (Dilantin) can increases the break-down of levodopa- carbidopa,
reducing its effectiveness.
Use of levodopa-carbidopa with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI's)
antidepressants, for example, isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil),
tranylcypromine (Parnate), and procarbazine (Matulane), can result in
severe and dangerous elevations in blood pressure. MAOI's should be stopped
2-4 weeks before starting levodopa-carbidopa therapy.
The side effects associated with levodopa, including dizziness upon rising,
confusion, movement disorders, nausea, and hallucinations, all can be
increased by selegiline (Eldepryl).
PREGNANCY: Although there are no human studies that
have examined the effects of levodopa-carbidopa on the fetus, animal studies
have shown adverse effects. Therefore, in prescribing levodopa- carbidopa
for a pregnant woman, the physician must weigh the potential risks to
the fetus against the potential benefits to the mother.
NURSING MOTHERS: Levodopa is distributed into breast
milk. It also may inhibit production of milk. It is generally recommended
that levodopa-carbidopa should not be given to women who are breast- feeding.
SIDE EFFECTS: Most patients receiving levodopa-carbidopa
experience side effects, but these are usually reversible. Occasional
involuntary movements are the most common of the serious side effects
of levodopa-carbidopa therapy. These may include chewing, gnawing, twisting,
tongue or mouth movements, head bobbing, or movements of the feet, hands,
or shoulder. These may respond to a reduction in the dose. Muscle twitching,
dizziness, muscle jerks during sleep, and hand tremor also may occur.
Various psychiatric disturbances may occur during levodopa-carbidopa therapy.
Such disturbances include memory loss, anxiety, nervousness, agitation,
restlessness, confusion, inability to sleep, nightmares, daytime tiredness,
mental depression or euphoria.
Gastrointestinal side effects are common in patients receiving levodopa-carbidopa.
Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss may occur. Patients
may experience dizziness upon standing up, associated with a drop in blood
pressure. Fortunately, the body develops tolerance to this side effect
within a few months.
Infrequently, patients may develop a drop in white blood cell count during
levodopa-carbidopa therapy. This is a cause to temporarily, if not permanently,
Caution! Before starting
to take this medicine, it is vital that you should consult your doctor!
Do not use it on your own initiative, without medical advice.
Madopar medicine is made up of benserazide and madopar levodopa and is used basically for treatment of Parkinson's disease. This medicine acts as a substitute for the required content in the nervous system which is lessen down due to the disease hence improving movement activities and muscle control in body. But, people under 25 years of age, pregnant women, persons who are highly reactive to allergies, the one who has heart, kidney, eye or any endocrine disease or someone who as taken MAO very recently should firmly avoid taking this medicine.
Antacids, anesthetics, opioids, blood pressure and mental disorder lowering drugs, metoclopramide and some other such medicines have a tendency to make this madopar tablets inactive toward body. Madopar Side Effects are like, red urine, dizziness, palpitations, looseness, confusion, skin rash or itching, tiredness, hallucination, agitation, nausea, vomiting and many more. But they are negligible if properly treated.
Madopar dosage is of 125 mg HBS and 250 mg. Carbidopa is also combiningly given with benseazide for the treatment. There are no such side effects of madopar but if in case you find any then you must consult you doctor without wasting any time. If you are suffering from glaucoma, diabetes, any psychological disorder, such as depression etc then also you should tell you doctor before taking these drugs. You want to be pregnant or you are pregnant in both the cases physician's advice is must, because there are possibilities that this drug will have bad effects on your health when they are combined with other medicines that you take during pregnancy time.
How much dosage you should take of madopar is to be asked by the doctor. You should not take medicines without doctor's advice. Until and unless it is prescribed by the doctor one should not take it.
|| Order now !
LEVODOPA-MADOPAR 250 MG
Manufacturer: Roche (Switzerland)
(200 mg levodopum, 57 mg benserazidum/tabl.)